What is DNS? How DNS server works

This article is based on what is DNS so let’s get straight into it. In the world of networking, computers don’t call by names as humans do, they call by numbers. By using numbers such as IP addresses computers and other similar devices talk and link to each other over a network. On the other hand, humans are identified by their names. In this concern, networks come to play their role by making domain name systems to overcome the bridge between humans and computers and to make communication a lot simpler. Nowadays, humans explore information on the internet through domain names like hostiera.com or amazon.com.

What is DNS

A domain name system means to decode your domain name into IP addresses so that it can be loaded on the internet by the browser. Every device connected to the internet holds an individual IP address. Through this IP address, other systems can find those devices. DNS is the prime substitute for the internet, without DNS it wouldn’t be possible to browse any website.

What is the purpose of a DNS server :

Whenever you write any website’s email, for example, www.hostiera.com on your google search bar, the DNS server will allow your computer to relocate these web addresses and connect you to the web server because the only thing your computer knows is numbers.

Imagine you have to memorize some numbers like 192.168.1. to load a website but DNS abolishes the need to remember such numbers.

Primary and Secondary DNS server :

In most cases, your router or computer has a built-in primary and secondary DNS server. The primary server is also called preferred DNS and the secondary server is also known as an alternative server. The reason for the two servers is simple if one of them fails to access the domain name then the other one will resolve the query.

How DNS server works :

The question that arises here is how DNS translates domain names into IP addresses, well the answer is simple it requires multiple hardware like the primary DNS server. To solve a DNS query there are 4 DNS servers needed each of these servers translates different parts of the DNS query.

Structure DNS
How DNS solves a query

1.   A DNS Resolver

It is the first server and it is responsible to find the particular IP address for a domain name that a person enters in his webpage and it is responsible to take further requests in case its unable to solve the query.

Suppose you type hostiera.com in your browser, your operating system finds the IP address. In case it is unable to find the IP address by its own cache memory then it will send the query to the resolver. Resolver is an Internet service provider ISP it will try to find out hostiera.com through its own cache memory. Still, if it’s not found by the resolver it will send the query to the next server which is the root server.

2. Root server

The root server doesn’t know where the IP address is but it will redirect the resolver to the Top-level domain server TLD. Now, that the resolver is connected to the TLD server it will ask the TLD server to find the IP address of hostiera.com. The root server is organized by 12 different organizations around the world. It has 13 sets of servers that are appropriately present in the world and each set contains its sole IP address.

3. TLD server

Now the resolver is connected to the TLD server, it will recognize the .com domain which is a part of hostiera.com but the TLD server doesn’t know the IP address for hostiera.com so it will link the resolver to the authoritative name server. TLD server holds the information of top-level domains such as .net, .com, .org, etc.

4. Authoritative name server :

Now the authoritative server asks the resolver what is your IP address. As the authoritative server knows each and everything about the domain including the IP address so they respond with the IP address of hostiera.com. Now the resolver will tell your web browser the IP address of hostiera.com. Then your browser can fetch the web page hostiera.com.

Free and public DNS server

There are many free and public DNS servers. Some of the examples of free and public DNS servers are Google, OpenDNS, Alternate DNS, Cloudflare, Cleanbrowsing, Quad9, and AdGuards DNS. Every DNS server has different features.

· Google DNS provides the fastest browsing.

· Open DNS claims the best reliability.

· Alternate DNS block ads from your network.

· Cloudflare never sells and uses your data for ads.

· CleanBrowsing is for the security filter of your device.

· Quad9 protects your device from cyber threats.

· AdGuards block ads of videos, apps, and games.

Why choose a different DNS server :

There could be many possible reasons to change the DNS server. 1. One reason is that your current DNS is slow and you need a better DNS server with the fastest and high-speed browsing. 2. Another reason is that your DNS server has some technical issues, one way you can confirm the issue is by simply adding the IP address of the website instead of the domain name and searching the domain name, if it’s unable to access the domain name but access the IP address that means your DNS server is facing some issues.

What to do when the DNS server is not responding

Sometimes when you type a web address on the webpage but the server is not responding. There could be any reason why your DNS server is not responding. First, check your internet connection mostly the problem is within the internet connection. Another reason you might face this issue is that the server is facing temporary power outrage or maybe your browser is not upgraded. You can fix these issues in certain ways.

1. Change your browser you can switch to other browsers like Firefox or Safari if you are using Google chrome maybe your browser isn’t updated to the latest version. You can check the latest version on chrome in the upper left corner of the Chrome window.

2. If changing the browser didn’t help the next step is to deactivate your firewall temporarily after deactivating the firewall try to browse the same thing if the page loads successfully that means the problem is resolved. Whether the issue is resolved or not don’t forget to reactivate your firewall just after browsing.

3. If the issue isn’t resolved restart your router click the power button twice and once it’s restarted and the internet connection is restored load the same page on your browser. 4. If the router, browser, and firewall aren’t the issue may be the problem lie within your DNS cache. In this case, flushing your cache will resolve the error.

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